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Rational use and recultivation of land – priority for IMPP
Rational use and recultivation of land – priority for IMPP

28.01.2015

Irshansk mining and processing plant is an enterprise with 60 years of history. In our country it is one of the leading enterprises in the sphere of extraction and production of titanium materials for chemical and metallurgical branches of Ukraine. More than a half of produced ilmenite concentrate is for own consumption and small amount is exported abroad. This plant is major budget revenue generating enterprise in the region and directly influences its economic development, provides thousands of workers with workplaces. The plant became an active subject of land matters since its foundation. It allocates a land plots for industrial production and other needs since 1954.
Mineral resources base of the plant consists of a few ilmenite deposits in the territory of Volodar-Volynsky, Korosten’ and Malyn districts of Zhytomir region.
Enterprise priorities are: rational usage and protection of the lands, creation of a favourable environment and recultivation of the disturbed lands underwent changes in relief structure, ecological state of the grounds and parent rocks as well as in hydrological regime as a result of mining and other activities.
One of the main tasks of the plant is to set these land plots in a usable condition and return them for usage in agriculture, forestry and water sector. Land restoration is made by means of the plant.
Recultivation is implemented according to the prepared in the established procedure working projects of land regulation and restoration of the disturbed lands.
In the absence of the special legal lands recultivation act, working projects of land regulation and restoration of the disturbed lands are developed in accordance with laws of the former USSR, if they do not contravene Ukrainian laws.
By the way, technological issues of land recultivation fulfillment are regulated by the state standards which include NSS 17.4.2.01-81 “Protection of nature. Grounds. Nomenclature of factors of the disturbed soil layers capability for earth mulching”; NSS 17.5.3.04-83 “Protection of nature. Lands. General requirement for lands recultivation”; NSS 17.5.1.02-85 “Protection of nature. Lands. Classification of the lands for recultivation”; NSS 17.5.3.06-85 “Protection of nature. Lands. Requirements for setting the standards of top soil removal during trench work.”
According to the state standards, recultivation of the land plot consists of two parts: technical recultivation and biological recultivation. Technical recultivation is the first stage of restoration of land plots soil.
It provides works such as filling of the disturbed land by parent rocks, planning, cleaning, smoothing of a plot surface and others.
Production flow charts of enterprise mining activity consists:
  • Formation of piles top slices from rocks suitable for biological recultivation;
  • Removal and transportation of top soil, its storage or application on surfaces recultivating according to NSS 17.4.3.02-85;
  • Selective mining of potentially rich rock and its selective piling existing at stripping, harmful and other unsuitable for biological recultivation soils;
  • Formation of form and structure capable mine piles, nonflammable and substantial open casts and industrial wastes;
  • Dewatering of piles, formed by means of hydromechanization.
Biological recultivation is the last stage of restoration of land plot soil. Biological recultivation includes application of the removed earlier rich soil slice on a land plot in a fixed sequence, defined by the land recultivation project.
Biological stage of recultivation is performed after technical and involves measures of disturbed lands fertility restoration (agriculture and mechanical, phytomeliorational and others), directed on reproduction of flora and fauna. Receive- transmit of recultivated lands to existing landowners and land users is conducted by a commission, fixed by a district state administration, and executed by a typical act, confirmed by a chairman of DSA.
During receive-transmit of performed lands recultivation work the commission checks:
  • Matching of the performed work to a confirmed project;
  • The quality of land planning;
  • Thickness and uniformity of rich soil slice application and potentially rich soils (for agricultural lands);
  • Quality content of a top soil slice, potentially rich and bedding rocks at a depth (for agricultural lands);
  • Quality of creating the hydraulic erosion control, fire protection  and others structures;
  • Keeping the design level of groundwater occurrence;
  • Availability of the access road.
Since enterprise start-up there were  6710,3772 hectares of land plots allotted, 3414 hectares of collected lands were recultivated and returned to the previous land users, of which: 2189,6 hectares – to forestry, 573,6 hectares – to artificial reservoirs, and 67.4 – to the others.
Basically there is a concept of the space localization and neutralization of mining work harmful influence on the environment, as well as creating the conditions for self-regeneration with usage of top soils, earlier removed from the designated lands for mining works, at the heart of disturbed lands recultivation.
The main basis of recultivation works – selective and directed formation of the optimal mining landscapes for designated economical purpose.
 
Wrote byS.Shevchuk